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Old 04-14-10, 08:22 PM   #21
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More on BLAST:

- Bit scores are calculated as 2-bits per nucleotide match, thus the higher the bit score, the better the match.
- E-value (expectation value) is the expected number of matches due to chance, thus a lower E-value means the more significant the match.

More on ClustalW2:

- Conserved regions are those where the sequence is the same across all inputs.
- Semi-conserved are regions with only a few variances
- Dashes signify regions that have either been added in some of the sequences, or deleted in others.
- High degrees of conservation could indicate that the region codes for an evolutionarily significant gene that is necessary for all the organisms
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Old 04-15-10, 12:42 AM   #22
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***claps claps****

That's my daily bread lol!! Its so much simpler to me than a random conversation..

Gosh those notes bring so many memories... I remember all of those experiments..I fucked up the final practical.. lol... ( it got contaminated..couldn't tag the sequence) still pulled it off pretty ok.

I'm a biochemist..so science of course is my passion.. what other science courses have u taken??? The pre req for micro is classial bio 1&2 and one elective in some uni..

I have taken ..god..heaps of bio..all my electives were chems and bios as well.. I enjoy them a lot.

U seem to get it pretty good so far!! But if u need any help with bio or chem let me know.. science has been my life for so long is my greatest comfort zone :)

Good luck!

Keep having fun!! Those PCR's are quite fun..just calibrate them right..

((((((Xoxoxoxo))))))

Straw.
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Old 04-15-10, 01:15 PM   #23
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Why thank you Strawberry. At the time I'm posting this, my exam is in a little under 6 hours. Gah!
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Old 04-15-10, 01:35 PM   #24
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The Hardy-Weinberg principle helps us predict changes in allele frequencies in a population. It functions based on five assumptions:

- The population is large
- Mutations do not affect gene frequency
- There is no migration of individuals in or out of the population
- Mating is random
- Selection does not affect the traits in questions

Given two alleles "p" and "q", after one generation the population will be as follows:

p^2 + 2pq + q^2
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Old 04-15-10, 01:55 PM   #25
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The model organism we observed was Drosophila melanogaster. They are ideal model organisms because they are easy to handle, have short life spans, reproduce and grow quickly.

Gender is determined by the number of X chromosomes: X is male, XX is female. For males, having only the X means it is sterile, while for females having XXX means it's sterile.

The major growth stages are egg, larvae (3 instars), pupae and adult.

Characteristics used to distinguish between males and females: males have sex combs, genital arches, claspers and a penis, whereas the female only has an ovipositor.

We use a cryolizer to anesthetize the flies, and handle them with brushes so they are unharmed.

For our flies, we observed for the eyes (WT, bar and heterozygous for both). The trait is sex-linked (only on the X-chromosome), thus there are no males that are heterozygous because that requires XX, which would make it female.

Using the chi-squared test on our population, our chi-squared value was much greater than the expected value, thus there was a significant difference between the observed and expected results. We reject the null hypothesis (The population follows the expected Hardy-Weinberg results), and accept the alternative. It was found that bar-type males appeared to be less successful at mating, thus over time the bar-allele would likely disappear. Genetic drift wasn't a concern because we only studied one generation, and the effects of genetic drift are observed over many.
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Old 04-15-10, 01:58 PM   #26
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Human Pedigree:

Straight forward review from previous years (Whew!)

Alleles handed down to offspring, track which were passed on, determine if sex-linked, blah blah blah.
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Old 04-15-10, 02:04 PM   #27
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*** done ***
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Old 04-15-10, 04:30 PM   #28
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Revision of X-gal note:

Okay, so this is two-hybrid analysis, involving the laboratory strain of E. coli and the plasmid. The plasmid has half of the lacZ', and the E. coli has the other half in its chromosome. When combined together, the promotor and activator are aligned and beta-galactosidase is produced. Under a medium of X-gal, galactosidase cleaves X-gal to produce a blue color. If the insert is successfully integrated within the plasmid, the LacZ gene is disrupted, no beta-galactosidase is produced, and the colonies appear white. These are the ones you want.
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Old 04-15-10, 04:30 PM   #29
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Beta-galactosidase also disables Ampicillin.
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